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It is believed that as much as 80% of premature ageing of the skin may occurs within the first 20 years of life. Skin biological starts aging at the age of 14-15. At the age of 28-30 the first signs of ageing appear. There are two different types of aging, Intrinsic ageing caused by genes we inherit, which is actually natural skin ageing. The other, caused by environmental factors such as sun exposure, smoking, alcohol, repetitive facial expression and so on, is called Extrinsic ageing and is in reality premature skin ageing.

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INTRINSIC AGEING

Intrinsic (chronological) aging accounts for about 10% of all skin aging and is characterised by thinning of the skin, loss of elasticity and a decreased metabolic activity. Extrinsic accounts for the other 90% of skin aging happens as a result of photoaging which causes damage to the skin, resulting in collagen and elastin degeneration, dilatation of the small vascular vessels, deposition of abnormal elastin and collagen, and increased skin pigmentation.

EXTRINSIC AGEING (FREE RADICALS)

Free radicals are the main culprits commonly implicated in causing skin aging. Oxygen and nitrogen free radicals are produced by smoking, environmental pollution, less than adequate nutrition, pesticides and other chemicals in food and alcohol, and most importantly, from UV radiation exposure upon the skin. When UV radiation interacts with the skin, it produces an excessive amount of free radicals, which destroy collagen, elastin and other proteins in the skin. UV radiation also interacts with the DNA inside skin cells causing further damage by allowing faulty DNA to replicate. In this way, imperfect DNA transcription and defective protein formation is perpetuated. This in turns results in visual and clinical signs including dryness, wrinkles, accentuated skin furrows, sagging, loss of elasticity, and mottled pigmentation, and are the result of degenerative changes in elastin and collagen. The risk of skin cancer is also considerably increased.

THE TYPES OF FACIAL AGEING

    • Skin – Texture, tone and pigmentation
    • Volume – Facial Fat and Countours
    • Muscle Dynamic and Static Wrinkle
    • Bone – Support and foundation

SKIN AGEING

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Skin cells form at the bottom of the outer skin layer (epidermis) and move up to the surface, where they die. Dead skin cells are continually shed from the skin’s surface. At some point the cell renewal process slows down and the dead skin cells don’t shed as easily as before. Eventually they form a layer, which slows down the process of skin regeneration. At the same time the process of moisture evaporation speeds up. The increasing skin dryness triggers the formation of fine lines and wrinkles. By the age of 50our skin to show sagging and wrinkles form around the eyes and mouth. As we age the outer skin layer becomes thinner, loses underlying fat and moisture and oil production gradually decreases (especially after menopause). At this time your skin type can change from oily or normal to dry. Dark spots, wrinkles, broken capillaries, dryness and other signs of aging become more noticeable.

Skin Ageing Process

    • 20 -30 years – collagen levels start to fall resulting in crow’s feet and frown lines
    • 30-40 years – collagen and elastin levels continue to fall resulting in edge of brow drooping, extension of nasolabial folds, lips begin to thin, glabellar (between the eyebrows) and forehead wrinkles appear
    • 40-50 years – collagen and elastin levels continue to fall resulting in eyelid bags and lines start to appear in upper and lower lips, forehead wrinkles deepen, gravity and the pull of muscles cause drooping or sagging of the skin and deeper structures from areas of deeper attachment
    • 50-60 years – menopausal effects, fat hangs in saggy skin nasolabial and marionette lines substantially deepen if not corrected, neck wrinkles, more of the eyebrow droops, the nasal tip droops, the lips thin so there is less dry vermillion (pink area where lipstick is applied) showing, perioral wrinkles deepen, platysmal banding appears in the neck.
    • 60-70 years – facial skin thins, skin pigment cells increase in number and size in a blotchy pattern giving rise to brown spots of the back of hand and face (senile lentigo).

VOLUME AGEING

As we age collagen and elastin production within the skin slows down. The skin has less spring and loses the ability to snap back into place. Collagen provides skin firmness and strength, while elastin adds flexibility and resilience. As we age the production of those two tissues slows down, the skin loses firmness and wrinkle formation intensifies.

Facial Volume Ageing

  • 20 -30 years – Fat begins to disappear from under the eyes, dark shadows cause us to look older and tired
  • 30 -40 years – malar fat pad descent begins, nasolabial lines appear, the result is wrinkles and jowls
  • 40 -50 years – cheeks begins to flatten, malar fat pad descent becomes more obvious, nasolabial lines deepen, facial fat atrophy or wasting becomes evident with concavity of the surface contour in the temple area and cheeks appearing, in some individuals the eyes become sunken as a result of fat atrophy rather than forming eyelid bags, marionette lines and jowls now appear, double chin appears
  • 50 -60 years – menopausal effects, fat hangs in saggy skin, nasolabial and marionette lines substantially deepen, jowls, double chin and ‘turkey neck’ appears, excess fat appears under eyes.

MUSCLE AGEING

This factor greatly influences the process of facial aging. When facial muscles lose tone, the signs of aging become more apparent. The skin on your face and neck is attached directly to the muscles. As years go by the muscle tone gradually decreases and the entire face starts sagging. As well as losing muscle tone the constant use of facial muscles for facial expression starts to leave deeper impressions on the surface of our faces.

Types of Wrinkles

  • Dynamic wrinkles – apparent during facial expression eg. frown or smile
  • Rejuvenation is Frances Clinic methodology Rejuvenation is a medical discipline
  • Static wrinkles – as we age these wrinkles are evident even at rest eg. crows feet,
  • Nasal Folds

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Source: Frances 

Referecnes

> https://sculptraaesthetic.com/facial-aging
> http://aaronstonemd.com/plastic-surgery-links/facial-aging-and-rejuvenation/
> http://saudibeautyblog.com/atonomy-of-an-aging-face/