This is primarily based on uneven skin colour. This may be due to general sun damage, melasma or post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. When treating hyperpigmentation, initial treatment involves the use of active topical ingredients. These ingredients may inhibit tyrosinase and minimise melanin production. examples include retinols, arbutin, kojic acid, liquorice extract and l-ascorbic acid.
Other topicals may remove surface pigmentation via chemical exfoliation (lactic acid, glycolic acid). Finally, ingredients such as niacinamide address pigmentation on another cellular level by preventing transfer of melanin to the keratinocyte.
Sun damage and age spots may be effectively treated with elos IPL and chemical peels.
Diffuse redness in conditions such as rosacea and poikiloderma may also be addressed with elos IPL targeting haemoglobin. Topical ingredients can reduce redness and inflammation as well as promoting healthier vascularity. Examples include niacinamide, chamomile, parthenolide, sea buckthorn oil and antioxidants.